Types of cloning
The copied material is called a clone.
West eds. Scientists implant DNA from non-reproductive cells of an organism into an egg from which the DNA nucleus has been removed. These factors will contribute to viewing and treating the child as a mere commodity.
Types of cloning
Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and, more recently, pluripotent stem cell induction. Organism Cloning: Organism cloning involves making an identical copy of an entire organism. Some, such as some blood and brain stem cells, can be derived directly from adults [ 12 - 19 ] and others can be obtained from preimplantation embryos. One interesting point is that both detractors of cloning e. In reproductive cloning, researchers remove a mature somatic cell , such as a skin cell, from an animal that they wish to copy. Dolly the sheep[ edit ] The taxidermied body of Dolly the sheep Dolly clone Dolly , a Finn-Dorset ewe , was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. How are genes cloned? Additional resources. Stem cells can be reprogrammed to become any type of cell needed to repair or replace damaged tissue or cells in the body.
After gestation is complete, the surrogate will give birth to the clone, which is a genetic copy of the animal from which the original cell was taken.
Ridley, Matt In doing so, we run the risk of relegating children to the status of mere possessions or commodities, rather than regarding them as beings with their own intrinsic worth Harakas, ; Kass, ; Meilaender, There is a lot of ethical debate over whether or not cloning should be used.
Perspectives on human cloning are theoretical, as human therapeutic and reproductive cloning are not commercially used; animals are currently cloned in laboratories and in livestock production.
There are many children who are products of artificial reproductive technologies IVF, intrauterine insemination, gender selection, and gamete intrafallopian transfer, among others and there does not seem to be an increase of despotic control over these children on behalf of their parents.
In fact, Dolly was euthanized at a significantly young age because of ill health. She would also likely be raised in a much different society e.
Cloning can be of immense use in improving the pedigree of livestock. Dolly was only one success out of attempts.
After gestation is complete, the surrogate will give birth to the clone, which is a genetic copy of the animal from which the original cell was taken. Nuclear transfer in mammals: recent developments and future perspectives. If a patient were to receive stem cell therapy in order to treat some affliction, her body may reject the stem cells for the same reason human bodies have a tendency to reject donated organs: the body tends to not recognize, and therefore reject, foreign cells. Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. One company is cloning maple trees to provide lumber for guitar-makers, with the aim of duplicating a quality in the wood, called figuring, that gives a guitar a sort of shimmering appearance. A number of objections have been raised against reproductive human cloning, among them the vanity and hubris of an unnatural act of self-engineering. Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells. Clonal propagation of primate offspring by embryo splitting. The experimental procedures required to produce stem cells through nuclear transplantation would consist of the transfer of a somatic cell nucleus from a patient into an enucleated egg, the in vitro culture of the embryo to the blastocyst stage, and the derivation of a pluripotent ES cell line from the inner cell mass of this blastocyst. This may conflict with long-standing religious and societal values about human dignity, possibly infringing upon principles of individual freedom, identity and autonomy.
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