The concept of victimization and its factors and consequences
Situational-level analyses usually treat the violent incident, or event, as the unit of analysis. To our knowledge the literature on violence has not been critically assessed from this perspective before, especially in a framework that points to future research designs needed to address remaining etiological questions.
Financial impact of crime on victims
Have they remained stable over time? Janet L. On the other hand, women are overwhelmingly the victims of rape. Are these differences stable over recent time periods? We begin with a brief overview of the general aspects of violent victimization. Finally, how might some of the limitations of extant victimization research be minimized? As implied by these questions, the goal of macrolevel research is not to explain individual involvement in criminal behavior but to isolate characteristics of communities, cities, or societies that lead to high rates of criminality. Findings based on official data e. For example, we examine how the risks of violent victimization and offending are distributed across characteristics such as age, sex, race, marital status, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. Those who are unemployed are at the greatest risk of robbery, assault, and rape, followed by persons in school, the employed, those unable to work, those keeping house, and the retired. Corrado et al. Although not strict criteria for inclusion, we also make a special effort to highlight a micro-macro linkages i.
For example, what characteristics of communities are associated with high rates of violence? What hooks you?
Social effects of crime
Situational-level analyses usually treat the violent incident, or event, as the unit of analysis. One of the primary findings is that the annual risk of becoming a victim of a crime of personal violence i. Clearly, future research on violence needs to focus more specifically on the development of individual-level measures necessary to test lifestyle-routine activity hypotheses using U. This review is divided into seven major sections. Excluding homicide, rape is the crime with the highest level of injury Hindelang et al. The NCS is an ongoing survey conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, designed to measure the extent of personal and household victimization in the United States. Socioeconomic Status Not surprisingly, family income is inversely related to the risk of personal victimization Hindelang, ; Hindelang et al. The risk of rape among women in the remaining income categories is approximately equal. Overall, NCS estimates suggest that unmarried persons are nearly four times more likely to become the victims of robbery, rape, or assault than are those currently married U.
Assault victimization rates for blacks and whites do not differ significantly in magnitude, although the majority of assault victimizations reported by blacks are incidents of aggravated assault, whereas among whites, simple assaults comprise the majority U.
Finally, Miethe et al.
In particular, Cohen et al.
based on 92 review